The improvement of identification accuracy of concurrent vowels with differences in fundamental frequency (F0) is usually attributed to mechanisms that exploit harmonic structure. To decide whether identification is aided primarily by selecting the target vowel on the basis of its harmonic structure ("harmonic enhancement") or removing the interfering vowel on the basis of its harmonic structure ("harmonic cancellation"), pairs of synthetic vowels, each of which was either harmonic or inharmonic, were presented to listeners for identification. Responses for each vowel were scored according to the vowel's harmonicity and that of the vowel that accompanied it. For a given target, identification was better by about 3% for a harmonic ground unless the target was also harmonic with the same F0. This supports the cancellation hypothesis. Identification was worse for harmonic than for inharmonic targets by 3-8%. This does not support the enhancement hypothesis. When both vowels were harmonic, identification was better by about 6% when the F0s differed by 1/2 semitone, consistent with previous experiments. Results are interpreted in terms of harmonic enhancement and harmonic cancellation, and alternative explanations such as waveform interaction are considered.