"Cognitive bases of music performance"
présenté par Caroline Palmer, Université de l'Etat de l'Ohio, USA
Mardi 20 mai de 9 h 30 à 12 h
IRCAM, Salle Stravinsky,
1 place Stravinsky, 75004 Paris
A. Musical communication and theories of the stimulus
Is the stimulus for music perception an abstract from
of a musical piece, or a particular performance of it?
As with language, music reflects a communication of
structure among its users (composers, performers, and
listeners), which suggests the existence of some shared
musical knowledge. Music performance may be an indispensable
source of evidence for theories of that shared knowledge,
because the particular expression given in each performance
guides our musical understanding. Different sources of
knowledge in music performance that contribute to a
theory of the stimulus for perception will be described,
based on evidence from expressive nuances of performance.
Correlates exist in music perception and in other
production domains, such as speech.
B. Temporal constraints on the planning and performance
of musical sequences: It don't mean a thing if it ain't
got that swing...
The performance of complex, temporally structured behaviors such as music
embodies two problems: the serial order of sequence elements, and
their relative timing. Musical sequences that are well-formed in
their serial order are often not understandable unless additional
constraints hold on the relative timing of the individual elements.
In addition, music performed without accurate temporal control is
considered deficient because it lacks the property of rhythm. I will
describe studies of skilled and novice piano
performances that address how relative timing and rhythm constrain
the planning and production of musical sequences. Evidence from
production errors indicates temporal constraints on the range of mental
planning, and evidence from expressive timing
reflects conceptual constraints on performance. Both types of
constraints are influenced by musical interpretation: Performers'
interpretations of structural content affect the expressiveness,
accuracy, and precision of performance.